Anorectal Malformation and its Treatment
“Ano" means the anus, which is the orifice at the end of the GIT through which feces passes when a person has a bowel movement. "Rectal” Is for the rectum, which is the part of the large intestine which is just before the anus.
Anorectal malformations are birth defects (Pathological cases that develop as a baby is developing during pregnancy). With this defect, the anus and rectum (the last end of the GIT) are not made efficiently.
With an Anorectal malformation, many deformities can occur, including the following:
- Due to the narrowness of anal pathway
- Anal opening may have a thin membrane
- Anus and rectum may have no connection
- A fistula could be present by which it may be connected to urinary tract.
- A fistula may be present by which it may be connected to the reproductive system of the body.
- The treatment for the malformation depends on which type of abnormality is present.
- An anal opening may be absent.
- Wrongly placed anal opening.
- Vagina and intestine connection.
- A Cloaca may join urinary system, vagina and intestine.
- In females, the intestine can join with the urinary system and vagina in a single opening, known as a cloaca.
First of all general body examination is done and physician checks the condition of the anus and rectum. After general examination the following ways of diagnosis are made.
- Abdominal X-ray
- Abdominal Ultrasound (also called Sonography)
- Computed Tomography Scan (also called a CT or CAT scan )
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Lower GIT barium Anema .
- Upper GIT barium Swallow.
- Cardiac echocardiogram
How the Treatment of Anorectal Diseases is done?
The whole treatment of this disease depends upon the followings:
- Problem extent.
- The overall health.
- Medical history of the patient.
- Physician’s opinion
- Disease’s course expectation.
- Narrow Anal Passage dilation.
- Anal membrane is removed.
- Connection of anal /rectal connection.
If the child is feeding normal and he is having normal bowel movement and he is feeling well then he can go to the home. But if there is a fistula present. Then a Foley catheter is placed in the bladder during the time of operation. By this way the fistula closure finds the time to heal. And Foley will be removed before the child goes to home.